Why You Probably Will Never Ever Bug Out

Bugging Out

The key words being probably never, and do not confuse bugging out with evacuation. You would evacuate because of a wildfire, flood and tornado for example, with every intention of returning home in a matter of days or even hours.

You would evacuate and head inland for a few days to escape a hurricane, or move to higher ground to let flood waters recede, this is not the same as bugging out because society has collapsed or because you feel it might collapse in the city in which you live.

If you have to bug-out because of hostilities or extremely dangerous conditions on the ground then you are essentially a refugee, unless you have a specific place, other than a government-established camp, that you can go to that provides shelter, has infrastructure, water, food and other essentials.

If the conditions were so bad that you and others had to flee your area then it is not likely, any other area would be able to provide you with the much-needed necessities without some type of governmental intervention.

Let’s face it; life is not as it was hundreds and even thousands of years ago. Back then, if droughts wiped out the crops or the winters became too cold you could pick up and move to another valley further south.

Entire villages routinely migrated so they could collect ripening food sources and to follow animal migrations. Today we all are essentially trapped in one area, and cannot simply pick up, move, and settle in a more hospitable area because of a crisis. We are essentially victims of society’s as well as our own successes.

In the 1930’s the Midwest was under a severe drought, crops dried up and topsoil was blown away by strong winds creating what was called the Dust Bowl. People by the tens of thousands fled the devastated areas.

Farmers and their families migrated to populated areas, looking for work, food and shelter. Camps were set up outside of cities, shantytowns and hobo camps dotted the landscape for miles around each town or community.

People fled to where other people were. They bugged out, from one place, only to find the conditions were even worse in some cases in the places where they ended up. Unemployment was 25 percent at the time and this is a conservative figure. Some have estimated that over two million people became displaced completely; they became hobos in other words.

The Question is What Would You Do

Do you have a place to go to that is any better than the one you are leaving. You have gathered supplies, gear and materials that would have to be left behind. You may assume you can carry it all in a vehicle with a trailer. However, if you are able to drive from your current home to a so-called safe haven, then the conditions were not likely bad enough to where you had to leave in the first place.

It is a paradox, because if the conditions on the ground warrant you leaving then you probably cannot leave because of the conditions on the ground, unless it is on foot. Most people would not get far on foot.

If the crisis overwhelms the country then your area of the country is likely to be overwhelmed as well. You could set out on foot, but then what. In most cases, your supplies would be gone before you made it past the city limits. Some people at this point would probably turn around and try to get back home, but it may be too late.

Experts and others with an opinion recommend you find a remote area to settle in, in other words they tell you to bug-out to the woods. To the very woods that others will possibly be fleeing too as well. Moving a populated area essentially from one place to another is what might end up happening. Hobo camps, and shantytowns would spring up.

Sheltering in place is not as romantic as bugging out. Bugging-out brings to mind the wide-open spaces, freedom of movement, no angry desperate people and no cops, until it, all changes and people start to gather in remote areas, just as you did.

Food will be scarce and water quality questionable in any area in which you end up. For those that think they can hunt for game probably need to reconsider this idea. There are over 300 million people in the United States all needing food, and the population of deer for example, is not even 10 percent of the population of humans. Animals will migrate away from humans and the ones that do not, will be killed off quickly if society collapses. In all likelihood, you will not be able to provide enough food daily for you and your family, by hunting.

You would have to migrate to find game and where does that leave you, because everyone else has already figured this out as well. Game would be plentiful if the crisis reduced the human population by a significant amount. The only way you could survive by roaming around the country is if the competition for resources was considerably reduced.

If you shelter in place, you will of course have dangerous situations to deal with, but you may very well have friends and neighbors to help or at the very least, you will have the advantage of knowing the area.

The country may collapse but not all communities will collapse entirely, people will gather for protection, to share knowledge and to help one another.

There may be situations that require you to leave and leave quickly but what is most likely to happen is the question. Bugging-out should always be the very last option and never the first one, because you do not want to flee one crisis only to find yourself in the jaws of another even more deadly situation.

If you were to analyze the situation carefully, you would probably find it is safer to shelter in place rather than leaving a known situation, however devastating it may be, for one in which you have no idea how devastating it is.

If you were alone, had good health and had some supply caches that you could resupply yourself with, then you could essentially roam the area, but to what end is what you have to ask yourself. The area you bugged out from is not the only dangerous area.

In a grid down scenario wherever you end up could be as devastating as any other area. To get there you would use up supplies, energy and you may be put into a situation where you will have to scramble almost by the hour to provide for yourself.

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Evasion Tactics in a Wilderness Environment

Evasion Tactics Wilderness Environment

The following is informational only, and is intended to be used, when you as a Prepper, have to abandon your home, and are forced to set off in to the wilderness. You may be forced away from your home by marauders, rouge law enforcement or rogue military units and even by other Prepper groups.

Your success or failure depends on the level of training of those tracking you, and your own level of training. Assume those tracking you are skilled and that they may use tracking dogs.

This information is not applicable to those that find themselves running from law enforcement because they have committed a crime. The fact they committed a crime shows their level of training and intelligence, so enough said on that.

Evasion is a survival skill that is instinctive in human and animals alike when danger is present. Animals use it all the time. They use their instincts/skills to prevent detection, so they do not end up as a meal for predators, human or otherwise. Animals cannot control their environment as humans can however.

Animals walk the same trails to water, and they do not have the ability to alter their trail to avoid detection. They seek water and then forage for food in the same areas, year after year, in other words, they cannot associate the consequence with their actions, but humans can.

One of the ways to counter an expert tracker is by knowing how to track. Learn how to track another human being if you expect to be able to avoid being tracked down by others. There is more to tracking than just following footprints. An expert tracker looks for patterns and they will make an educated guess as to probable entry/exit points and ultimately may ascertain your destination.

Practice with a friend. Have them set off as if they are being pursued and this means they will walk faster than normal and may even run in some cases to get ahead of those following. Follow their tracks and make note of where the trail gets harder to see and where it is easier to see. Note the soil, or snow composition and how the tracks look when someone is walking or running. Notice how the grass is trampled and how fast it recovers after someone has trampled it.

Note the conditions where you lost the trail. What type of soils or ground cover makes tracking harder? This is what you will learn when you practice tracking others. Study the tread pattern and length of stride of the person you are tracking and memorize it so as not to get confused when more than one track is present.

When You become the Hunted

Running at first is important to gain distance from those following or from those than might follow you. If you see an armed unit heading toward your house, and escape is the only alternative, then you want to move quickly. It is assumed you have a survival bag packed and ready to go.

It will take time for the aggressors to get organized, so use this to gain distance. Do not head for any obvious landmarks like rivers or lakes or any structures that might be in the area. The trackers in most cases can only guess about your skill level and what survival gear you may have.

To eliminate the obvious they may split the team so one or two can check any water sources and possible shelters in the area. They may put a water source close by under surveillance. They will immediately begin trying to determine a possible destination.

The weather and terrain are calculated into the mix. They know you will need water, so make sure your survival bag has enough water so it is not an immediate concern.

In all likelihood, you will not stop an experienced tracker from eventually finding you if they stay with it. Of course, if you have a destination that is a safe zone, or can find an area where you can successfully launch a counter attack then you can stop the tracker (s).

In most cases, you would need reinforcements to launch an attack to stop a well-armed unit however. Your objective is to confuse and slow the tracker with the hope they give up the hunt.

Use roadways, streams and railroad tracks to your advantage, but realize they will expect you to do this, and you will be exposed while doing this. Enter on blind curves where the view is obstructed from both directions and once on the roadway in the stream or on the tracks reverse direction.

This will slow the tracker, not stop them because they will eventually, if not immediately, realize you changed direction. They will find where you reentered the woods. Do not try to keep landmarks such as roadways, train tracks and waterways in sight by walking parallel to them.

You can change shoes if you have them, to leave a different tread mark. Change once you are on a highway, train tracks or in a river, and do this before reentering the woods. This will slow down and possibly confuse the tracker, but will not stop them.

Do not go near any structures you find, and once you have used a waterway, tracks or roadway  move away from them, and do not walk parallel to them. You do not want to be exposed in the middle of a river or roadway, so use caution when doing so, and make sure you are far enough ahead of your pursuers before exposing yourself.

Can You Evade Tracking Dogs

It is extremely difficult if not impossible once they have your scent. What you can do however, is to confuse the handler. Change direction abruptly, so if you come upon a big tree or rock, circle it and head off in a different direction for example, and then after 50 yards or so abruptly do the same thing. The handler may think the dogs have lost the sent if they keep twisting and turning back and forth, and the handler may then move them off in another direction. At the very least, you have slowed the pursuit.

You can walk in a stream but the dogs of course will track you to the water’s edge and then can find where you left the water. Walking up the middle of a stream leaves you exposed, so in some cases this method may not be worthwhile to try, unless you are convinced you have a substantial lead on your pursuers.

Do not hide in trees, because you are trapped if spotted and in most cases, you will be tracked right to the tree. Do not hide in water, the breathing through a reed trick, only works in the movies. You will be tracked to the body of water and experienced trackers will simply wait you out. You can develop hypothermia even if the water is 72° F, so you cannot hold out for long.

Do not smoke, chew gum or apply insect repellent that has an odor. Bury waste even urine under rocks and make sure you place the rock back so as not to leave any indication you where there. Hold your position so you can listen, you cannot just thrash through the brush, you have to stop periodically to look and listen. You of course want to spot them before they spot you, so use your senses to help you.


If you cannot stay ahead of them, then let them pass you, but to avoid detection you have to use camouflage.  Mud, wood ashes and foliage can all be used. You cannot make yourself look like trees or bushes so do not try, it will only make you stand out.

You want to break up the body and face’s outline by using shadows, leaves, mud and ash/charcoal. Blend in using the colors around you. You do not use green leaves and then crouch near a tan limestone outcropping. Use dust on your skin to reduce shine, along with mud and charcoal.

Grasses and leaves also can be stuck to the mud after it is applied to your skin and clothing. Resist movement because the eyes catch it. Go to ground and stay there until they pass. Of course, if they are using dogs you would not be able to do this.

Ideally as part of your prepping plans, you had planned for this and ultimately have more than one destination in mind. You cannot let your actions, in other words do not develop a pattern, which would allow the tracker to guess where you are headed.

If they realize you are steadily heading in one direction, they may have the capability of getting ahead of you, or they may determine your destination. Reversing course only slows the tracker and if you reverse course, and yet eventually head off in the same general direction you can be tracked right to that destination.

Therefore, you should have planned to have more than one destination, and as things unfold on the ground you can decide, which one is better suited.

Be patient and flexible. Flexibility is one of the most important keys to successful evasion. You are primarily focused on avoiding detection. Remember that people catch people. If you can avoid detection then you will ultimately succeed.

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Safe Collection and Purification of Drinking Water

Boiling Water Purification

You may have seen a reality show or watched a video online where a person is demonstrating how to use water purification tablets or drops. The person dips their canteen in the river or pond and fills it. Then they add two tablets, or add a few drops to the canteen. The person mixed it well and then waited the prescribed time before drinking. They missed one critical step however.

The entire drink line is contaminated when you dip a drinking container into contaminated water.

You probably have ordered drinks at a restaurant, ice tea, soda or even a glass of beer. The server carries the drinks on their tray to the table and as they pick up the drink you notice their fingers are holding the glass at the drink line, the very place you will put your lips to take a sip. Their fingers are all over the rim of the glass, their unprotected fingers.

Your canteen also has a drink line, a place where your lips touch as you sip. The water inside the canteen is purified but the drink line is not sanitized unless you follow specific steps.

Ideally, you will have two containers, because one could be used for collection of the contaminated water. Once collected the contaminated water is then filtered into a clean container. This way you do not have to worry about the canteen threads and cap being contaminated.

You would need a filtering medium so you can filter the water into a clean container. Once the filtered water is inside a clean container then you add your tablets or drops.

Of course, nothing is ideal, so if you only have one container then dip it, add your drops or tablets and shake well. Once mixed, loosen the cap and act as if you are going to pour some of the water out. What you want to do is make sure the treated water flows around the cap and threads. This is to destroy contaminates lingering there. Then replace the cap and wait the prescribed time. Most tablets require an extended wait period after treatment so make sure you read carefully.

Once you have a camp established, you could sanitize all collection containers in boiling water. Boiling is always the preferred method of water purification. It is always prudent to filter water even if you plan to boil it. Filtering removes certain debris and waterborne cysts that in some cases, can withstand boiling water.

Bacteria, protozoa and viruses can be harbored inside the cysts and other debris and thus are not destroyed by the boiling process. Once inside your stomach, the acid present would dissolve the cysts/debris, which of course would then release anything inside in to your system. A one-minute roiling boil is adequate in most cases.

Protozoa – Cryptosporidium

Potential health effects are gastrointestinal illness, diarrhea, vomiting and cramps. Drinking water is contaminated by human and animal fecal waste.

Methods that may remove some or all of Cryptosporidium from drinking water are

  • Rolling boil for 1 minute, boiling is very effective in killing Cryptosporidium
  • Filtration is highly effective in removing Cryptosporidium but you must use an absolute less than or equal to 1 micron filter (NSF Standard 53 or 58 rated “cyst reduction / removal” filter)
  • Disinfection with iodine or chlorine is not  considered an effective method for killing Cryptosporidium
  • Chlorine dioxide has a low to moderate effectiveness in killing Cryptosporidium, chlorine dioxide is usually sold as water purification tablets and they may advertise they are effective against cryptosporidium

The ideal method is when you combine filtration with disinfection. This method has a very high effective rate in removing and killing Cryptosporidium when used with chlorine dioxide.

Protozoa – Giardia intestinalis 

Also known as, Giardia lamblia and its health effects are gastrointestinal illness, diarrhea, vomiting and cramps. Drinking water is contaminated by human and animal fecal waste.

Methods that can remove Giardia

  • Rolling boil for 1 minute, this is very  effective in killing Giardia
  • Filtration has a high effectiveness in removing Giardia when using an absolute less than or equal to 1 micron filter (NSF Standard 53 or 58 rated “cyst reduction / removal” filter);
  • Disinfection with iodine or chlorine shows some effectiveness in killing Giardia
  • Chlorine dioxide water purification tablets are known to be effective in killing Giardia
  • Combination filtration and disinfection has a very high effectiveness in removing and killing Giardia 

Bacteria and Viruses

All of the above-described methods are effective in removing and destroying bacteria and viruses in drinking water. Once again, the ideal method is filtration and then purification.

Iodine is effective as well as chlorine dioxide in killing bacteria and viruses, but as noted above iodine is not effective in killing certain protozoa. You cannot mix iodine with any other chemical to purify water; it can only be one or the other.

Methods that may remove some or all of viruses and bacteria from drinking water are

  • Rolling boil for 1-minute minimum
  • Filtration is not effective in removing viruses in most cases, but is proven effective in removing bacteria
  • Disinfection with iodine or chlorine has a high effectiveness in killing viruses and bacteria
  • Disinfection with chlorine dioxide has a high effectiveness in killing viruses and bacteria

There is debate about filters and viruses. Viruses are typically smaller than 0.1 micron and thus are not removed by the standard filtration device you would have in your backpack. There are filters that claim to be able to filter out certain viruses and they might very well do so, but in a field environment how do you know the filter is still effective. The only way you may find out is by becoming sick.

Have backup methods/filters or use a combination of filtration and purification methods to ensure your water is safe to drink.

In the United States viruses are not a huge problem because most deadly viruses such as polio and a few others has been eradicated, or people have been vaccinated against them. However, this is not to say that you would not be exposed to any virus.

CDC. (n.d.). Retrieved 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/travel/backcountry_water_treatment.html

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DIY Seed Tape

How To Make Seed Tape

Planting vegetables with tiny seeds can be wasteful and a pain. Traditional methods have you sowing way more seeds than you need, then coming back and thinning after they sprout. The traditional method finds the plants competing for resources in the soil as well.

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Pine Tree

The Incredible and Edible Pine Tree

Plant a Pine Tree Because Someday It May Save Your Life

The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden accept 175 names of pines (conifers) as current.

In most cases, they tend to be hardy trees in their native environment and they can be found practically anywhere. A pine tree may very well be your best friend if you find yourself lost or stranded in a wilderness environment.

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Shotgun Combat Reloading: Should You Practice and What Exactly is It?

Shotgun Combat Reloading

This article is focused on combat reloading a pump action or even a semi-automatic shotgun. As is in all cases it is up to the shooter to decide based on their comfort level and other considerations.

A shotgun combat reloading is sometimes called a tactical reload. However, some consider a combat reload as a top off while a tactical reload is reloading when your weapon has been fired empty. In years past the military, and most law enforcement agencies trained shooters to fire dry and then reload under cover or do a tactical reload while still maintaining target discipline.

In some cases, a tactical reload means discarding a partially full magazine for a full one to ensure the firearm is always fully loaded. One hand is ejecting the partially loaded magazine while the other reaches for a full magazine then slaps it into place. The muzzle is always pointed at the target during this process

A combat reload when it comes to shotguns usually means to load a shell as one is fired to maintain full capacity. This takes a conscious effort until it becomes a habit and once it does, you will find your hands are moving to perform the task even when your mind and eyes are engaged on the target, here is one example below.

Reloading under cover requires more moves on the part of the shooter and this can cause the shooter to lose sight of the target. However, dropping to one knee, with the muzzle down range while taking fire is unnerving to say the least, but if you have the proper training, you can reload by feel while still maintaining sights on target.

Today shooters are trained to top off and many call this a “combat reload”, fire one, reload one, fire two reload two and do all this by feel while maintaining a “sight on target position”. Pulling the weapon up to reload means you have to reposition when ready to fire, so it is important you can reload by feel only.

You always want your firearm to be at the ready to fire position at all times and an empty firearm is not ready obviously. A shotgun can only hold a few rounds, so in some instances you will have to reload in the middle of the action.

Typically, your shotgun fully loaded would get the job done, but multiple intruders may mean you have to reload to neutralize the threat. Even if all aggressors are down you still need to reload while maintaining eyes on the target (s).

Receiver mounted shell carriers are ideal for combat reloading, and some carriers allow you to carry shells with base up or base down depending on your personal preferences. If you are just starting to practice combat reloading, then try various methods of carrying your shells to find out which ways feels best for you. Some find it difficult to get used to receiver mounted shell carriers, while others do not like stock mounted shell carriers.

Keep in mind you may have to reach for shells carried in a pouch around your waist, so become familiar with all methods of carrying extra shells. Always keeping your receiver or stock mounted carrier fully loaded means you have shells available whenever you pick up your shotgun however. You may not have time to secure a pouch around your waist when you hear the front door crash in.

Use your hand as a cage so when you “pop” a shell from the carrier it is held securely in the palm of your hand. This position allows you to “slap” the shell in essentially. It will take practice to make sure you always have the shell positioned correctly in your hand for loading.

Knowing your shotgun is important, so before trying a combat reload make sure you are proficient with your firearm and always practice with training dummy rounds on an approved firing range set up for combat drills. You cannot become proficient without practice. Those that fail to practice will fire their weapons dry and then fumble for shells to reload. Seconds matter and not being able to reload quickly means you lose.

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Water Can and Will Kill You Once the SHTF

Dripping Water

Water that has become contaminated by human waste and by other means can create over time as many deaths as the crisis itself.

First, let us start out with a few facts. The following facts are gathered from around the world.

  • Roughly, 783 million people do not have access to safe water on a daily basis, which is more than 2.5 times the population of the United States
  • Approximately, 3.5 million people die each year because of a limited water supply, and from contaminated water, there are numerous deadly diseases present in untreated water
  • Eighty percent of the sewage discharged in developing countries is discharged, without being treated, directly into water bodies, the same bodies of water that people draw their daily water supply from (Water.org, 2014)

Imagine if water treatment plants went off line today and your faucets only delivered air. What happens when the sewage systems in urban areas stop working, and your toilets do not flush?

How long before people start getting sick from contaminated water, because human waste will not stop flowing. Human waste will make its way into the local surface water sources, sources that can no longer be treated on a large scale.

Disease such as cholera, dysentery and typhoid will be present in many surface water sources in a matter of weeks after the infrastructure collapses, because of human waste contamination. Once a person gets a disease from contaminated water, they can spread that disease to others in their family and community.

The figures listed above would increase dramatically if the United States and other developed countries lost their ability to supply the populace with clean drinking water for an extended period. People would be forced to consume contaminated water, and they would die from it.

Now That You Know What You Likely Already Knew What Do You Do

Knowing is one thing, and being able to do anything about it is another. Water stockpiles are essential, but stockpiles do not magically reproduce themselves. If the crisis is an extended one, you must have the ability to treat a contaminated water source. Keep in mind you will use more water than you had calculated, so your stockpile will dwindle faster that you had previously thought. 

You should not rely on just one method of purifying a water source. You need methods that can be used at home and along the trail, should you have to evacuate.

Water Filtration Devices

The ones on the market today have remarkable capabilities. However, filters are not perfect, so they are just one of several methods that should be incorporated. In some cases, you can replace the filter in the device when it has exceeded the number of gallons for which it is rated. Some filtering devices have a stated number of gallons they will filter, and when you reach that number you simply throw the device away.

It is important that you have a stockpile of filters for all devices that allow a change out, and track the number of gallons filtered when using all devices. Most are rated beyond what is stated by the manufacturer, so there is a margin of error, but in a life or death situation you cannot guess, you have to know it is still working.

Household Bleach

The water must be filtered first before purification. Filter using coffee filters, cheesecloth, charcoal, sand, cloth or gravel. Ideally, you would layer multiple filtering mediums in a device for best results.

Sodium Hypochlorite (bleach) has been used for decades to purify your tap water and common household bleach that contains sodium hypochlorite as its active ingredient is ideal for water purification. The bleach used should contain 5.25 to 6 percent of the active ingredient and not have any additives. The ratio is eight drops per gallon, and a wait time of 30 minutes is required before drinking. You can add up to 16 drops per gallon if the water is cloudy. The smell of chlorine should be slight when you open the container after mixing and letting it sit for 30 minutes.


Filter the water first.

Two percent liquid tincture of iodine can be used, but there are health risks to certain individuals. Anyone with known or suspected thyroid problems should check with their health professional as well as anyone pregnant, nursing or with other health conditions before consuming iodine treated water.

Regardless of your health, you should only consume iodine treated water for a maximum of 14 days at a time. The ratio is five (5) drops per liter/quart of water if the water is clear and it is not cold, (below 50° F). You can add up to 10 drops per liter/quart if the water is cloudy even after filtering or if it is below 50 degrees.


Filter First

Fire has been used for thousands of years and there is no reason why you should not be able to ignite a fire regardless of the situation. Given all of the tools and materials available on the market, you should always have the means of starting a fire in any environment. Boiling is the preferred method of water purification. All you need is filtering materials, and a suitable container in which to boil the water. Filter your water before boiling even if it is just through a bandana.

Purification Tablets

You can purchase iodine or chlorine based purification tablets and the directions may vary by manufacturer and by active ingredient. The tablets will have an expiration date, so make sure they are up to date before use. Filter any water source before adding any purification tablets.


You may think you are dying of starvation after three days, but you are not likely to be dying from lack of food. However, if you are not being properly hydrated or if you drink contaminated water, you can die within three days.

You cannot filter out poisons or chemical toxins. Boiling and chemical treatments will not remove chemical toxins or poisons from a water source.

Everything it seems is a priority when it comes to survival but not having a clean water source once the SHTF means you will not live long, this is simply the facts. You need a foolproof plan in place to make sure you have a reliable way to purify a contaminated water source before something happens.

Water.org. (2014). Retrieved 2014, from http://water.org/water-crisis/water-facts/water/

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20 Bug Out Location Considerations

Bug Out Location

Photo Credit: TinHatRanch.com

A dream for some, a reality for others, owning a bug out location is on every prepper’s list. When the prepper twinkle first lights in your eye you begin to access the situation, for most, statistically speaking, we live in the cities or suburbs. These might not be ideal locations in which to find yourself during a grid down scenario. As we learn about being prepared, put together our first 72 hour kits and bug out bags, our plans begin to turn more long term. We start to think about a safe place for our families during crisis and that eventually leads us to the “Bug Out Location”.

Bug out locations can range from a fully stocked rural fortification to just a piece of land. Taking things one step farther, the mind begins to postulate that the bug out location can someday be a homestead, off the grid and self-sufficient. The problem is, even with careful forethought, costly mistakes can be made when choosing the location. One simple mistake, such as purchasing land in a 500 year flood plain, can lead to disaster if the 500 year flood occurs post apocalypse. There are many considerations in purchasing a bug out location, here are 20 to think about:

Read more at… 20 Bug Out Location Considerations

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Pepper Spray

Pepper Spray Does It Work and Do Preppers Need It

Pepper spray is also known as “oleoresin capsicum” or OC. The spray is made from the same chemical that naturally occurs in chili peppers. Capsicum makes them hot, and anyone that has rubbed their eyes or nose after handling hot peppers knows what the chemical can do to mucus membranes and even to skin.

Pepper spray has a higher concentration of the chemical, so imagine the effect at more concentrated levels. Its effects include temporary blindness, coughing and skin irritation. Typically, the chemical is combined with glycol and water, and some type of propellant.

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Night Navigation SHTF

Navigating Effectively and Quietly In the Dark When the SHTF

When the lights go out the looters and other criminals come out to play. Daylight is reserved for resting up after a night of pillaging and plundering. This means that once the SHTF the darkness becomes dangerous.

You may have to navigate at night, and at the same time avoid those that would do you harm, such as marauders or looters. You may also have to avoid groups that have targeted you or your Prepper group specifically, so you will have to be able to move silently and effectively through the darkness.

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